However, there are some scalp problems which can lead to permanent hair loss, though these are – thankfully – rare.
Here we explore some of these rare scalp conditions…
1 Sarcoidosis of the scalp
A widely-cited article (PMID: 10727323) on sarcoidosis of the scalp published in the Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology from the year 2000 advises that only 24 cases of this condition had ever been reported at that point.
The condition is said to be a “rare manifestation of cutaneous sarcoidosis” which is more common among African-American women, and is diagnosed via a biopsy.
A blood test may also be taken as the British Association of Dermatologists advises calcium and angiotensin-converting-enzyme (ACE) may be elevated in people with sardoidosis. Lung function may also be monitored as this can be affected, too.
In addition to causing Cicatricial Alopecia (scarring hair loss) and non-Cicatricial Alopecia, it may also involve plaques or nodules developing on the scalp.
Treatment for the scalp form of sarcoidosis involves the use of topical, prescription steroid solutions or injections, though where scarring hairloss has occurred, hair regrowth is unlikely as the follicles will have been destroyed in the scarred areas.
2 Lipoedematous alopecia*
Lipoedematous scalp causes the layer of fat under the scalp to thicken; this causes the forehead and/or back of the head to become “soft, spongy or thick”. It is commonly found in women, frequently women of colour, and when associated with hair loss, it is referred to as Lipoedematous alopecia.
Although the precise cause of these rare conditions are unknown, factors are believed to include frequently wearing tight headwear and hormonal issues. It has been linked to diabetes mellitus, renal failure and ovarian cysts, among other illnesses.
No treatment or cure for Lipoedematous alopecia exists, though corticosteroids may be used to help stop or slow down its progression.
3 Lumpy scalp syndrome
First discovered in 1978, in addition to the obvious symptoms – pus-filled lumps or ‘nodules’ on the top or back of the scalp – Lumpy Scalp Syndrome also causes hair loss in these areas, a lack of nipples, ear deformities and partially webbed toes, according to a November 1990 paper published in the International Journal of Dermatology.
This research states its origins were traced to a woman in Somerset, UK, who died in 1918, via five generations where, of 56 of her direct descendants, 10 were found to have this condition and 2 had partial diagnoses.
Information provided by the US National Library of Medicine advises Lumpy Scalp Syndrome is caused by mutations to the KCTD1 gene and diagnosis involves genetic testing. An image of someone with the condition can be found, here.
The rare inflammatory condition is also known as Scalp-Ear-Nipple (SEN) syndrome or Finlay–Marks syndrome and is generally present from birth, though some symptoms may go away during childhood, including scalp lesions healing.
4 Graham-Little-Piccardi-Lassueur syndrome*
As with many of the above, Graham-Little-Piccardi-Lassueur syndrome (GLPLS) causes cicatricial alopecia of the scalp; it also, however, causes non-scarring hair loss in the armpits and groin areas. Additionally, follicular lichen planus may cause rough bumps to occur around the hair follicles. It is a rare condition that, although it can affect men, is four times more likely to present in women aged between 30 and 70 years old. It can also be accompanied by severe itching in the affected areas.
Although the scarring hair loss cannot be treated in terms of promoting hair regrowth, there are therapies such as corticosteroids, retinoids, antimalaraials and antibiotics, which may slow the rate of hair loss.
Anyone who is worried about losing their hair, seeing extra hair fall or sudden bald patches develop, or notices a drop in hair density should contact a hair clinic for a consultation.
If there is no non-surgical remedy available for their particular hair loss condition – as is the case with many forms of scarring alopecia – Belgravia may offer a referral to a highly-skilled hair transplant surgeon for a consultation.
* Information provided by the Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Centre, part of the US Department of Health and Human Services.
The Belgravia Centre is an organisation specialising in hair growth and hair loss prevention with two clinics and in-house pharmacies in Central London, UK. If you are worried about hair loss you can arrange a free consultation with a hair loss expert or complete our Online Consultation Form from anywhere in the world. View our Hair Loss Success Stories, which includes the world’s largest gallery of hair growth comparison photos and demonstrates the levels of success that so many of Belgravia’s patients achieve. You can also phone 020 7730 6666 any time to arrange a free consultation.